Friday, March 08, 2013

TSP 33: Interview with Historian Andrew Jones on the History of Papal Resignations

Recently I spoke with Dr. Andrew Jones, a Church historian with Logos Bible Software, on the history of papal resignations. Jones does a fantastic job, surveying all the evidence, beginning with the early Church.

He was nice enough to provide an outline, which you'll find posted below.

This is the most thorough overview you'll find in a single podcast. I hope you enjoy it! Leave your comments below!

Listen on iTunes or click the link below.

TSP 33: Interview with Historian Andrew Jones on the History of Papal Resignations

  1. Early Church - Problem: Persecution
    1. St. Potian, 230-235: Maybe abdicated before being martyred, but the evidence is shaky.
    2. St. Marcellinus, 296-304: There is some evidence he abdicated after offering sacrifice to idols and before being martyred, but there is other evidence that he did not.
    3. Liberius, 352-366: There is some evidence that he abdicated while in exile. This, though, is slight and can be interpreted otherwise.
    4. St. Martin I, 649-655: Odd situation. Martin was the last of the martyr popes. He was exiled and Eugenius I was elected while he was still alive.
  2. 11th Century - Problem: Secular Power and Corruption
    1. Benedict IX (e. 1032) and Gregory VI (1045-6) – very dramatic series of abdications and depositions. Resulting ultimately in the intervention of the Emperor and the establishment of the Reform party. Benedict IX appears on the list of popes three times.
    2. The Reform party set up for the first time a process by which the cardinals would chose the pope—trying to stop these sorts of things from happening.
  3. 14th Century - Problem: the Papal Monarchy, the College of Cardinals, and the Rise of the National Kingdoms.
    1. The Construction of the Papal Monarchy: large, centralized institution throughout Europe.
    2. The College of Cardinals: they became very powerful and important, a part of the papacy.
    3. The Problem of Papal Vacancies: the see was vacant for 13 years between 1241 and 1316. The Cardinals couldn’t decide, couldn’t compromise.
    4. The Invention of the Conclave (it’s initial failure to work), 1274
    5. Election and Abdication of Celestine V in 1294: he was a compromise candidate who was elected to end a two year conclave.
    6. Boniface VIII and the Avignon papacy
    7. The Western Schism and Conciliarism
    8. The Council of Constance and the abdication of Gregory XII in 1415 to end the Schism.
    9. Election of Martin V in 1417 and the end of the medieval Papacy and the start of the Renaissance papacy.

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